Potential Neuromodulation of the Cardio-Renal Syndrome

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1 Scopus citations


The cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) type 2 is defined as a progressive loss of renal function following a primary insult to the myocardium that may be either acute or chronic but is accompanied by a decline in myocardial pump performance. The treatment of patients with CRS is difficult, and the disease often progresses to end-stage renal disease that is refractory to conventional therapy. While a good deal of information is known concerning renal injury in the CRS, less is understood about how reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity affects this syndrome. In this review, we provide insight into the role of the renal nerves, both from the afferent or sensory side and from the efferent side, in mediating renal dysfunction in CRS. We discuss how interventions such as renal denervation and abrogation of systemic reflexes may be used to alleviate renal dysfunction in the setting of chronic heart failure. We specifically focus on a novel cardiac sensory reflex that is sensitized in heart failure and activates the sympathetic nervous system, especially outflow to the kidney. This so-called Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex (CSAR) can be ablated using the potent neurotoxin resinferitoxin due to the high expression of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors. Following ablation of the CSAR, several markers of renal dysfunction are reversed in the post-myocardial infarction heart failure state. This review puts forth the novel idea of neuromodulation at the cardiac level in the treatment of CRS Type 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number803
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • cardiac reflexes
  • denervation
  • heart failure
  • renal function
  • sympathetic nerve activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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