Pre-left Ventricular Assist Device Cognition: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Implant Recipients

Mallory J. Woods, Scott W. Lundgren, Cecilia Y.M. Poon, Kevin A. Kupzyk, Windy W. Alonso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in patients before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement. The consequences of these deficits may differentially impact groups of patients with limited access to postimplantation resources, such as those in rural areas. However, to date, no studies have examined preimplantation cognition in rural and urban patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare cognition in rural and urban patients before LVAD implantation. This observational cohort study is a secondary analysis of 265 patients undergoing LVAD implantation between July 2004 and June 2019. Preimplantation cognitive function was assessed. Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes designated rural and urban. Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare rural and urban cohorts. Subjects were 75.8% (201/265) male, 75.4% (200/265) urban, and 56.6% (±13.2) years old. Rural subjects scored significantly lower on the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) (27 ± 2.20) and Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) (32 ± 22.9) compared with urban counterparts (MMSE, 27.6 ± 2.7) (p = 0.009); WRAT (44.4 ± 26.2) (p = 0.02) pre-LVAD. These findings suggest rural patients may have greater MCI before LVAD implantation. Rural LVAD recipients with MCI may require additional intensive education and tailored resource identification before discharge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-373
Number of pages5
JournalASAIO Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022


  • Urban
  • cognition
  • heart failure
  • left ventricular assist device
  • rural

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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