Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common cause of morbidity among patients supported by left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The aim of this study was to identify if pre-LVAD right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with risk of GIB after LVAD implantation. Of 398 patients implanted with LVADs between July 2008 and July 2016, 130 (33%) developed GIB at a median of 2.6 months following LVAD implantation. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were found in 42 (34%) GIB patients. Patients with GIB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. On pre-LVAD echocardiography, GIB patients had increased RV diastolic dimension (4.7 ± 0.8 vs. 4.4 ± 0.9 cm, p = 0.02), a higher rate of greater than mild tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation (73 [60%] vs. 120 [47%], p = 0.006), and underwent TV repair more often (38 [30%] vs. 43 [16%], p = 0.0006) during LVAD implantation. After multivariable adjustment, preoperative greater than mild RV enlargement (hazard ratio [HR] 2.32, 95% CI 1.12-5.03; p = 0.03), TV regurgitation (HR 1.83, CI 1.02-3.44; p = 0.01), and TV repair (HR 3.76, confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.44; p = 0.01) remained associated with risk of GIB. This finding was driven by the AVM-GIB subgroup. Preoperative RV enlargement and TV regurgitation are associated with post-LVAD AVM-related GIB.
- gastrointestinal bleeding
- left ventricular assist device
- right ventricular dysfunction
- tricuspid regurgitation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering