Prevalence and exposure to ergonomic risk factors among crop farmers in Nigeria

Toyin Samuel Olowogbon, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde, Edward Asiedu, Aaron Moses Yoder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study examined the prevalence and exposure to ergonomic risks factors among crop farmers in selected states in Nigeria. We used cross-sectional data to provide this evidence. Data were collected with the aid of a standardized questionnaire administered to farmers. A total of 480 smallholder cassava farmers selected across 24 farming communities in Kogi and Kwara states, Nigeria, were engaged in the study. Descriptive statistics and binary regression were used for analysis. About 96% of the respondents reported shoulder pain, 85% reported lower back pain, 82% reported upper back pain, 64% reported neck pain, and 53% reported elbow pain during farming operations. We found that the age of farmers (OR = 2.01) and daily duration of daily chemical spray (OR = 1.17) were risk factors, while previous training on the safe use and application of farm chemicals was found to be a protective factor (α = 0.05). The study identified affordability of farm safety measures and poor access to relevant safety information as top constraints to farmers’ adoption of safe farm practices. We concluded there is a high prevalence of ergonomic risks during cassava operations among respondents. A crop-specific co-designed ergonomic intervention targeted at Nigerian farmers to reduce exposure to ergonomic risks is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11989
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021


  • Crop farmers
  • Ergonomic
  • Health risks
  • Nigeria and prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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