Prevalence of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in Turner syndrome: A prospective case–control study

Patrick Twohig, Ling Li, David Alan Danford, Mary Craft, Anji T. Yetman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aims: Abnormal liver chemistries are common in Turner syndrome (TS). Guidelines suggest that TS patients undergo annual screening of liver enzymes, but the role of non-invasive screening for steatosis and fibrosis is not clearly defined. We compared the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis among TS patients to healthy controls using ultrasound with shear-wave elastography (SWE) and assessed for risk factors associated with steatosis and fibrosis in TS. Methods: Prospective case–control study of TS versus control patients from 2019 to 2021. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound with doppler and SWE to assess hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. Risk factors were compared between TS and controls, as well as within the TS group. Results: A total of 55 TS and 50 control patients were included. Mean age was 23.6 years vs. 24.6 years in the control group (p =.75). TS patients had significantly more steatosis (65% vs. 12%, stage 1 vs. 0, p <.0001) and fibrosis (39% vs. 2%, average Metavir F2 vs. F0, p <.00001) than controls. These findings remained significant after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) (p <.01). GGT is more sensitive than AST or ALT in identifying these changes. Conclusion: TS is associated with an increased prevalence of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis compared to healthy controls. Our findings suggest that serum GGT and ultrasound with SWE may help identify TS patients with liver disease. Early risk factor mitigation including timely oestrogen replacement, weight control, normalization of lipids and promoting multidisciplinary collaboration should be encouraged.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLiver International
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • liver fibrosis
  • paediatric
  • prospective
  • steatotic liver disease
  • Turner syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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