The electromagnetic field focusing (EFF) apparatus consists of a radio fre quency generator, solenoidal coil, and a hand-held or catheter probe. Applications such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and neurosurgery in various models have been reported. The probe is operated in the near field (within one wavelength of an electromagnetic field source) of a coil inducing eddy currents in biological tissues, producing maximal convergence of the induced current at the probe tip. The probe produces very high temperatures depending on the wattage se lected for the given radio frequency of output power. The high temperature can be used in cutting, cauterizing, or vaporizing. The EFF probe is comparable to different types of lasers and to bipolar and mono polar cautery. The EFF probe can be used with catheters or endoscopes. Objec tives of this study were to determine what the thermal properties of the EFF probe are and how instrument parameters can be varied to obtain different temperatures in the tissue near the probe tip. In this study an F2 catheter was used as an insulated sheath and the tip of the guide wire was used as the probe tip. Different powers, wave forms, coil-to- probe distances, and probe-tip lengths were tested on a phantom that simulates tissue electrical properties. Some of the experiments were conducted under nor mal saline to simulate treatment of tissue with body fluids such as blood vessels or brain tissue under normal physiologic conditions. It is concluded that the EFF probe has the advantages of easy manipulation, relative safety, cost effectiveness, and a high degree of spatial control. Only at the point of contact do extremely high temperatures occur. Small volumes of heat dissipation occur around the tip, especially when the sinusoidal wave form is used. Temperatures delivered are related to power applied, coil-to-probe-tip distance, and probe-tip length.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine