Prostaglandin E (PGE) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement

William G. Grieve, Georgia K. Johnson, Robert N. Moore, Richard A. Reinhardt, Linda M. DuBois

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175 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of two potent bone resorbing mediators, prostaglandin E (PGE) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), during human orthodontic tooth movement. The study included 10 patients, each having one treatment tooth undergoing orthodontic movement and a contralateral control tooth. The GCF was sampled at control sites and treatment (compression) sites before activation and at 1, 24, 48, and 168 hours. Prevention of plaque-induced inflammation allowed this study to focus on the dynamics of mechanically stimulated PGE and IL-1β GCF levels. The PGE and IL-1β levels were determined with radioimmunoassay. At 1 and 24 hours, mean GCF IL-1β levels were significantly elevated at treatment teeth (8.9±2.0 and 19.2±6.0 pg, respectively) compared with control teeth (2.0±1.1 pg, p=0.0049, and 2.9±1.0 pg, p=0.0209, respectively). The GCF levels of PGE for the treatment teeth were significantly higher at 24 and 48 hours (108.9±11.9 and 97.9±7.3 pg) than the control teeth (61.8±7.2 pg, p=0.0071, and 70.8±7.4 pg, p=0.0021, respectively). The GCF levels of PGE and IL-1β remained at baseline levels throughout the study for the control teeth, whereas significant elevations from baseline in GCF IL-1β (24 hours) and PGE levels (24 and 48 hours) were observed over time in the treatment teeth (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that bone-reorbing PGE and IL-1β produced within the periodontium are detectable in GCF during the early phases of tooth movement and return to baseline within 7 days.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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