Protectionism indices for non-tariff measures: An application to maximum residue levels

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33 Scopus citations


We propose aggregation indices of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) to quantify their protectionism relative to international standards of stringency. We apply the indices to national Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) regulations on pesticides and veterinary drugs affecting agricultural and food trade and using a science-based criteria embodied in Codex Alimentarius international standards. The approach links two streams of the NTM literature, one concerned with the aggregation of various NTMs into operational indices for econometric and modeling purposes, and the other attempting to evaluate the protectionism of NTMs. The data used in the application come from a large international dataset on veterinary and pesticide MRLs and CODEX MRL standards for a large set of countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-68
Number of pages12
JournalFood Policy
StatePublished - Apr 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Barriers
  • MRL
  • Maximum residue limit
  • NTMs
  • Non-tariff measures
  • Protectionism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Development
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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