Pulmonary hypertension inhaled therapies: An updated review

Karim El-Kersh, Bilal A. Jalil

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Treatments of pulmonary hypertension (PH) continue to evolve with approval of new therapies. The currently FDA approved inhaled PH therapies include inhaled iloprost for group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), inhaled treprostinil solution and treprostinil dry powder inhaler for both group 1 PAH and group 3 PH associated with interstitial lung disease (PH-ILD). Inhaled treprostinil was recently approved for group 3 PH-ILD based on the results of INCREASE trial and the newer formulation of treprostinil dry powder that comes with a new inhaler was recently approved for both group 1 PAH and group 3 PH-ILD based on BREEZE study. The pipeline for inhaled PH therapies includes several promising molecules that can enrich the current PH therapeutic era and mitigate several systemic side effects by directly delivering the drug to the target organ. In this review article we summarize the evidence for the currently approved inhaled PAH/PH therapies, discuss the available inhalation devices, present a roadmap for successful treatment strategy, and present several inhaled PAH/PH therapies in the pipeline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-15
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Iloprost
  • PAH
  • PH treatment
  • PH-ILD
  • Treprostinil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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