Qualitative Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Screening for African American and Hispanic Populations in Nebraska: an Application of the PRECEDE Framework

Krishtee Napit, Kendra L. Ratnapradipa, Keyonna M. King, Athena K. Ramos, Lady Beverly L. Luma, Danae Dinkel, Tamara Robinson, Laura Schabloske, Tatiana Tchouankam, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Nationally and in Nebraska, African Americans (AA) and Hispanics have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates compared to non-Hispanic Whites. We aimed to obtain perspectives from AA and Hispanic cancer survivors and caregivers in Nebraska about CRC screening to improve outreach efforts. Data from four virtual focus groups (AA female, AA male, Hispanic rural, and Hispanic urban) conducted between April–August 2021 were analyzed using a directed content approach based on the Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model. Most of the 19 participants were female (84%) and survivors (58%). Across groups, awareness of colonoscopy was high, but awareness of fecal testing needed to be higher, with confusion about different types of fecal tests. Predisposing factors were trust in the health system; awareness of CRC screening; machismo; fear of cancer; embarrassment with screening methods; and negative perceptions of CRC screening. Enabling factors included provider recommendations, healthcare access, and insurance. Reinforcing factors included prioritizing personal health and having a support system. Suggestions to improve screening included increasing healthcare access (free or low-cost care), increasing provider diversity, health education using various methods and media, and enhancing grassroots health promotion efforts. Lack of awareness, accessibility issues, attitudes and perceptions of CRC and CRC screening, trust, and cultural and linguistic concerns are major issues that need to be addressed to reduce CRC screening disparities among AA and Hispanic adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1767-1776
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cancer Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • African Americans
  • CRC Screening
  • Colonoscopy
  • Focus groups
  • Hispanics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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