Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

John W. Creswell, William E. Hanson, Vicki L. Clark Plano, Alejandro Morales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1245 Scopus citations


Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article provides a detailed discussion about five qualitative approaches— narrative research; case study research; grounded theory; phenomenology; and participatory action research—as alternative qualitative procedures useful in understanding test interpretation. For each approach, the authors offer perspectives about historical origins, definition, variants, and the procedures of research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-264
Number of pages29
JournalThe Counseling Psychologist
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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