Quality and inequality in pre-primary and home environment inputs to early childhood development in Egypt

Caroline Krafft, Abbie Raikes, Samira Nikaein Towfighian, Rebecca Sayre Mojgani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


By the time children start primary school, large socioeconomic disparities are evident in their learning and development. Both pre-primary and home environments can play important roles in influencing school readiness and can contribute to disparities in early childhood development, but there is limited evidence on their relative roles in the Middle East and North Africa. This paper examines how pre-primary quality, stimulation at home, and early childhood development vary by socioeconomic status for pre-primary students in Egypt. The results demonstrate substantial socioeconomic inequality in stimulation at home, more so than in pre-primary quality and inputs, although there is variation in the degree of inequality across different dimensions of pre-primary quality. “Double inequality” is observed, where students with less stimulating home environments experience slightly lower quality pre-primary inputs. There are particularly large pre-primary inequities in structural quality (physical environment) and less inequity in process quality (pedagogy). These results suggest that targeted investments in pre-primary education in Egypt are necessary to reduce inequality in school readiness but are likely insufficient to close the socioeconomic status gap in children's development. Investing in interventions to improve vulnerable children's home learning environments, as well as investing in quality pre-primary, is critical to address disparities in children's development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-34
Number of pages11
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
StatePublished - Jul 2024


  • Early childhood development
  • Education quality
  • Egypt
  • Home environment
  • Pre-primary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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