Racial differences in measures of glycemia in the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

Erin S. LeBlanc, Anastassios G. Pittas, Jason Nelson, Ranee Chatterjee, Neda Rasouli, Mary K. Rhee, Richard E. Pratley, Cyrus V. Desouza, Lisa M. Neff, Anne M. Peters, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Daniel S. Hsia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Understanding how race may influence the association between A1c and glycemia can improve diabetes screening. We sought to determine whether, for a given A1c level, glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) differed by race. Research design and methods From data collected at 22 US clinical sites, we conducted a cross-sectional study of concurrently measured A1c and OGTT and observational longitudinal follow-up of the subset with high-risk pre-diabetes. Numerical integration methods were used to calculate area under the glycemic curve (AUCglu) during OGTT and least squares regression model to estimate A1c for a given AUCglu by race, controlling for potential confounders. Results 1016 black, 2658 white, and 193 Asian persons at risk of diabetes were included in cross-sectional analysis. Of these, 2154 with high-risk pre-diabetes were followed for 2.5 years. For a given A1c level, AUCglu was lower in black versus white participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, A1c levels for a given AUCglu quintile were 0.15–0.20 and 0.02–0.19 percentage points higher in black and Asian compared with white participants, respectively (p<0.05). In longitudinal analyses, black participants were more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes by A1c than white participants (28% vs 10%, respectively; p<0.01). Black and Asian participants were less likely to be diagnosed by fasting glucose than white participants (16% vs 15% vs 37%, respectively; p<0.05). Black participants with A1c levels in the lower-level quintiles had greater increase in A1c over time compared with white participants. Conclusions Use of additional testing beyond A1c to screen for diabetes may better stratify diabetes risk in the diverse US population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere003613
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 12 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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