Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. Design: Two parallel, methodologically identical, phase III, multicenter, double-masked, sham injectioncontrolled, randomized studies. Participants: Adults with vision loss from DME (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA], 20/4020/320 Snellen equivalent) and central subfield thickness ≥275 μm on time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intervention: Monthly intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 or 0.3 mg) or sham injections. Macular laser was available per-protocolspecified criteria. Main Outcome Measures: Proportion of patients gaining ≥15 letters in BCVA from baseline at 24 months. Results: In RISE (NCT00473330), 377 patients were randomized (127 to sham, 125 to 0.3 mg, 125 to 0.5 mg). At 24 months, 18.1% of sham patients gained ≥15 letters versus 44.8% of 0.3-mg (P<0.0001; difference vs sham adjusted for randomization stratification factors, 24.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.834.8) and 39.2% of 0.5-mg ranibizumab patients (P<0.001; adjusted difference, 20.9%; 95% CI, 10.731.1). In RIDE (NCT00473382), 382 patients were randomized (130 to sham, 125 to 0.3 mg, 127 to 0.5 mg). Significantly more ranibizumab-treated patients gained ≥15 letters: 12.3% of sham patients versus 33.6% of 0.3-mg patients (P<0.0001; adjusted difference, 20.8%; 95% CI, 11.430.2) and 45.7% of 0.5-mg ranibizumab patients (P<0.0001; adjusted difference, 33.3%; 95% CI, 23.842.8). Significant improvements in macular edema were noted on OCT, and retinopathy was less likely to worsen and more likely to improve in ranibizumab-treated patients. Ranibizumab-treated patients underwent significantly fewer macular laser procedures (mean of 1.8 and 1.6 laser procedures over 24 months in the sham groups vs 0.30.8 in ranibizumab groups). Ocular safety was consistent with prior ranibizumab studies; endophthalmitis occurred in 4 ranibizumab patients. The total incidence of deaths from vascular or unknown causes, nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and nonfatal cerebrovascular accidents, which are possible effects from systemic vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition, was 4.9% to 5.5% of sham patients and 2.4% to 8.8% of ranibizumab patients. Conclusions: Ranibizumab rapidly and sustainably improved vision, reduced the risk of further vision loss, and improved macular edema in patients with DME, with low rates of ocular and nonocular harm. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
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