Rationale and design of the enoximone clinical trials program

Brian D. Lowes, Simon F. Shakar, Marco Metra, Arthur M. Feldman, Eric Eichhorn, J. William Freytag, Michael J. Gerber, Jean Francois Liard, Craig Hartman, Rick Gorczynski, Gwyn Evans, Jennifer V. Linseman, Jennifer Stewart, Alastair D. Robertson, Ellen B. Roecker, David L. Demets, Michael R. Bristow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background: Chronic heart failure is a disease syndrome characterized in its advanced stages by a poor quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and a high risk of mortality. In advanced and ultra-advanced chronic heart failure, many treatment options, such as cardiac transplantation and mechanical devices, are severely limited by availability and cost. Short-term Phase II clinical trials suggest that low-dose oral inotropic therapy with enoximone may improve hemodynamics and exercise capacity, without adversely affecting mortality, in selected subjects with advanced chronic heart failure. Based on these data, the ability of enoximone to deliver safe and efficacious palliative treatment of advanced/ultra-advanced chronic heart failure is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials. Methods and Results: The Enoximone Clinical Trials Program is a series of 4 clinical trials designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral enoximone in advanced chronic heart failure. ESSENTIAL I and II (The Studies of Oral Enoximone Therapy in Advanced Heart Failure) will investigate the effects of oral enoximone on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, submaximal exercise capacity, and quality of life in subjects with New York Heart Association Class III/IV chronic heart failure. EMOTE (Oral Enoximone in Intravenous Inotrope-Dependent Subjects) will evaluate the potential of oral enoximone to wean subjects with ultra-advanced chronic heart failure from chronic intravenous inotropic therapy to which they have been shown to be dependent. EMPOWER (Enoximone Plus Extended-Release Metoprolol Succinate in Subjects with Advanced Chronic Heart Failure) will explore the potential of enoximone to increase the tolerability of continuous release metoprolol in subjects shown previously to be hemodynamically intolerant to β-blocker treatment. Conclusion: These studies are Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials designed to test the general hypothesis that chronic oral administration of low doses of enoximone can produce beneficial effects in subjects with advanced or ultra-advanced chronic heart failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)659-669
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
Issue number9
StatePublished - Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Chronic heart failure
  • Enoximone
  • Inotrope therapy
  • Type III phosphodiesterase inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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