Reactive tendering: mechanism and solutions

Bingnan Mu, Wei Li, Yiqi Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Abstract: This research studies how reactive dyes affect properties of cellulosics. It was found that covalently bonded reactive dyes accelerate acidic hydrolysis of cellulose and such an accelerated hydrolysis causes a decrease in durability of reactive dyed cellulosics, especially, those with heavy shades. The problem is unsolved due to the lack of knowledge of the mechanism of fiber tendering. This research investigates the effect of structures of reactive dyes on the degree of tendering of cotton. It demonstrates that tendering of dyed cotton can be attributed to the electric field effect of the dye on cellulose. Our research also finds that the poor wet-crocking fastness of reactive dyed cotton fabrics results from reactive tendering. Based on the proposed mechanism of fiber tendering, we have designed reactive dyes with minimized field effect which was quantified using simplified Kirkwood–Westheimer model. Fabrics dyed with these new dyes demonstrate the reduction in fiber tendering and the improvement in wet-crocking fastness. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5769-5781
Number of pages13
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jun 15 2019


  • Cellulose chemistry
  • Fiber tendering
  • Hydrolysis
  • Reactive dyes
  • Wet-crocking fastness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics


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