Recent progress in g-C3N4, TiO2 and ZnO based photocatalysts for dye degradation: Strategies to improve photocatalytic activity

Meena Nemiwal, Tian C. Zhang, Dinesh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Water contamination by dyes is a matter of concern for human health and the environment. Various methods (membrane separation, coagulation and adsorption) have been explored to remove/degrade dyes. However, now the exploitation of semiconductor assisted materials using renewable solar energy has emerged as a potential candidate to resolve the issue. Although, single component photocatalysts (ZnO, TiO2, ZrO2) were experimented, due to their low efficiency and stability due to the high recombination rate electron-hole pair and inefficient visible light absorption, composites of semiconductor materials are being used. Semiconductor heterojunction systems are developed by coupling two or more semiconductor components. The synergistic effect of their properties, such as adsorption and improved charge carrier migration, is observed to increase overall stability. This review covers recent progress in advanced nanocomposite materials based on g-C3N4, TiO2 and ZnO used as photocatalysts with details of enhancing the photocatalytic properties by heterojunctions, crystallinity and doping. The conclusion at the end displays a summary, research gaps and future outlook. A holistic analysis of recent progress to demonstrate the efficient heterojunctions for photodegradation with optimal conditions, this review will be helpful for the development of efficient heterostructured systems for photodegradation. This review covers references from the year 2017–2020.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number144896
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - May 1 2021


  • Dyes
  • Heterostructured nanocomposite
  • Photocatalytic degradation
  • g-CN, TiO and ZnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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