Scope: The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms by which red raspberry (RR) polyphenolic fractions regulate obesity and inflammation with an emphasis on the crosstalk between adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) and adipocyte progenitors. Methods and Results: C57BL/6 male mice are fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or an HF diet supplemented with a RR polyphenolic fraction from whole fruit, pulp, or seed. Supplementation with pulp significantly increases energy expenditure and reduces HF-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The pulp, and to a lesser extent, whole polyphenols, decreases the recruitment of ATM, activation of the nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and adipocyte hypertrophy, which is associated with epigenetic modulation of adipogenesis (e.g., H3K27Ac, H3K9Ac). Results from an IL-1β reporter assay in J774 macrophages recapitulate the inhibitory role of RR polyphenols on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using conditioned media from macrophages, it is demonstrated that RR polyphenols reverse the IL-1β-mediated epigenetic suppression of H3K27Ac in adipocyte progenitor cells. Conclusions: RR polyphenols from pulp and whole fruit serve as an inhibitor for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and an epigenetic modifier to regulate adipogenesis, which confers resistance against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction.
- histone modification
- nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome
- red raspberry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science