Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy characterized by high resistance and poor response to chemotherapy. In addition, the poorly immunogenic pancreatic tumors constitute an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) that render immunotherapy-based approaches ineffective. Understanding the mechanisms of therapy resistance, identifying new targets, and developing effective strategies to overcome resistance can significantly impact the management of PDAC patients. Chemokines are small soluble factors that are significantly deregulated during PDAC pathogenesis, contributing to tumor growth, metastasis, immune cell trafficking, and therapy resistance. Thus far, different chemokine pathways have been explored as therapeutic targets in PDAC, with some promising results in recent clinical trials. Particularly, immunotherapies such as immune check point blockade therapies and CAR-T cell therapies have shown promising results when combined with chemokine targeted therapies. Considering the emerging pathological and clinical significance of chemokines in PDAC, we reviewed major chemokine-regulated pathways leading to therapy resistance and the ongoing endeavors to target chemokine signaling in PDAC. This review discusses the role of chemokines in regulating therapy resistance in PDAC and highlights the continuing efforts to target chemokine-regulated pathways to improve the efficacy of various treatment modalities.
- Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
- Therapy resistance
- Tumor microenvironment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research