Protein-protein interactions may impose constraints on both structural and regulatory evolution. Here we show that protein-protein interactions are negatively associated with evolutionary variation in gene expression. Moreover, interacting proteins have similar levels of variation in expression, and their expression levels are positively correlated across strains. Our results suggest that interacting proteins undergo similar evolutionary dynamics, and that their expression levels are evolutionary coupled. These patterns hold for organisms as diverse as budding yeast and fruit flies.
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