One of the mechanisms through which protein levels in the cell are controlled is through transcriptional regulation. Certain regions, called cis-regulatory elements, on the DNA are footprints for the trans-acting proteins involved in transcription, either for the positioning of the basic transcriptional machinery or for the regulation - in simple terms turn on or turn off - thereof. The basic transcriptional machinery is DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) which synthesizes various types of RNA and core promoters on the DNA are used to position the RNAP. Other nearby regions will regulate the transcription: in prokaryotic organisms operators are involved; in eukaryotic organisms, proximal promoter regions, enhancers, silencers, and insulators are present. This chapter will describe the various DNA regions involved in transcription and transcriptional regulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology