Common formulations of amphotericin-B include a deoxycholate colloidal suspension (d-Amph), an amphotericin-B lipid complex (Ablc), and a liposomal product (l-Amph). The clinical incidence of infusion related fever is highest with d-Amph, intermediate with Ablc, and lowest with l-Amph. In the present study, we measured the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequent release of prostaglandin E-2 (PgE-2) from brain microvessel endothelium treated with these three formulations of amphotericin-B. Primary cultured bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (BBMEC) were exposed to d-Amph, Ablc and l-Amph at concentrations that can be achieved in the plasma of patients receiving the drug. Media samples from the cells were collected and analyzed for PgE-2. Release of PgE-2 from BBMEC monolayers treated with l-Amph was similar to cells receiving culture media alone. In contrast, Ablc and d-Amph caused significantly greater release of PgE-2 from BBMEC monolayers compared to controls receiving culture media alone. PgE-2 release after d-Amph treatment was similar in magnitude to that observed with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western blot analysis indicated significant induction of COX-2 expression in BBMEC following LPS, Ablc or d-Amph treatment. Furthermore, PgE-2 release following exposure of BBMEC monolayers to either LPS or the various amphotericin-B formulations was reduced by the addition of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. These studies indicate that amphotericin-B induces COX-2 expression in brain microvessel endothelium resulting in release of fever producing PgE-2. The magnitude of PgE-2 release from BBMEC following exposure to various amphotericin-B formulations mirrors the clinical observations regarding amphotericin-B induced fever and serves as initial support for the clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors to reduce amphotericin-B fever.
- Brain endothelial cell activation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)