In this report, we describe the mechanism of TGF-β receptor type I (RI) repression in the GEO human colon carcinoma cells. Treatment of GEO cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5 azacytidine induced RI expression and restored TGF-β response. A stably transfected RI promoter-reporter construct (RI-Luc) expressed higher activity in the 5 aza C treated GEO cells, suggesting the activation of a transactivator for RI transcription. Gel shift analysis indicated enhanced binding of proteins from the 5 aza C treated nuclear extracts to radiolabeled Sp1 oligonucleotides specifically contained in the RI promoter. Protein stability studies after cyclohexamide treatment suggested an increase in the Sp1 protein stability from the 5 aza C treated GEO cells. Further, transfection of Sp1 cDNA into untreated GEO control cells increased RI promoter activity and thus induced RI expression. 5 aza C mediated Sp1 expression in Sp1 deficient GEO colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cells also enhanced the activity of several other Sp1 dependent promoters such as TGF-β receptor type II (RII), Cyclin A and p21/waf1/cip1. These results indicate that restoration of Sp1 in several different types of Sp1 deficient cells leads to enhanced activation of a wide range of Sp1 dependent promoters.
- Transforming growth factor-β
- Transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (RI)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research