Background. Reproductive hormone function after pancreas transplantation (PTX) is unknown as it has not been studied. Methods. We prospectively studied PTX recipients to determine changes in reproductive hormones after PTX. Testosterone or estradiol, leutinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and prolactin were determined before and 1 year after PTX in 23 patients (10 women, 13 men) followed for more than 1 year after PTX. Of these, 11 received simultaneous kidney-PTX; 8 PTX only; and 4, PTX after kidney. Average age was 38.4±1.6 years and average duration of diabetes was 24.5±1.3 years. Nine (four women, five men) patients had been on dialysis pre-PTX. Sixteen of 23 patients were treated with cyclosporine and seven with FK-506 along with prednisone and azathioprine post-PTX. Results. Mean testosterone in men was normal pre- and post-PTX. Two men had secondary hypogonadism pre-PTX with resolution in one and persistence in the other post-PTX. Five of the ten women had evidence of hypogonadism pre-PTX: three had primary hypogonadism and two had secondary hypogonadism. Post-PTX, 7 of 10 women had abnormal reproductive hormones: 4 had primary hypogonadism, 2 had secondary hypogonadism, and 1 developed hyperestrogenemia with elevated estradiol (482 pg/ml) and leutinizing hormone (41 IU/liter). Mean prednisone dose and cyclosporine trough level were higher in the women than the men (P<0.05). No cases of secondary hypogonadism that developed or resolved post-PTX were related to changes in prolactin, renal function, or hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Women are more likely than men to have reproductive hormone abnormalities pre- and post-PTX and the causes may be multiple.
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