The vertebrate visual system can detect and transmit signals from single photons. To understand how single-photon responses are transmitted, we characterized voltage-dependent properties of glutamate release in mouse rods. We measured presynaptic glutamate transporter anion current and found that rates of synaptic vesicle release increased with voltage-dependent Ca2+ current. Ca2+ influx and release rate also rose with temperature, attaining a rate of ∼11 vesicles/s/ribbon at -40 mV (35°C). By contrast, spontaneous release events at hyperpolarized potentials (-60 to -70 mV) were univesicular and occurred at random intervals. However, when rods were voltage clamped at -40 mV for many seconds to simulate maintained darkness, release occurred in coordinated bursts of 17 ± 7 quanta (mean ± SD; n = 22). Like fast release evoked by brief depolarizing stimuli, these bursts involved vesicles in the readily releasable pool of vesicles and were triggered by the opening of nearby ribbon-associated Ca2+ channels. Spontaneous release rates were elevated and bursts were absent after genetic elimination of the Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1). This study shows that at the resting potential in darkness, rods release glutamate-filled vesicles from a pool at the base of synaptic ribbons at low rates but in Syt1-dependent bursts. The absence of bursting in cones suggests that this behavior may have a role in transmitting scotopic responses.
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