Rethinking the chemokine cascade in brain metastasis: Preventive and therapeutic implications

Shailendra Kumar Maurya, Parvez Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Ranjana K. Kanchan, Naveenkumar Perumal, Sidharth Mahapatra, Hitendra S. Chand, Juan A. Santamaria-Barria, Surinder K. Batra, Mohd Wasim Nasser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Brain metastasis (BrM) is one of the major causes of death in cancer patients and is associated with an estimated 10–40 % of total cancer cases. The survival rate of brain metastatic patients has not improved due to intratumor heterogeneity, the survival adaptations of brain homing metastatic cells, and the lack of understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms that limit the availability of effective therapies. The heterogeneous population of immune cells and tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) release various factors, such as chemokines that upon binding to their cognate receptors enhance tumor growth at primary sites and help tumor cells metastasize to the brain. Furthermore, brain metastatic sites have unique heterogeneous microenvironment that fuels cancer cells in establishing BrM. This review explores the crosstalk of chemokines with the heterogeneous TME during the progression of BrM and recognizes potential therapeutic approaches. We also discuss and summarize different targeted, immunotherapeutic, chemotherapeutic, and combinatorial strategies (with chemo-/immune- or targeted-therapies) to attenuate chemokines mediated BrM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)914-930
Number of pages17
JournalSeminars in Cancer Biology
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Brain metastasis
  • Brain microenvironment
  • Chemokines
  • Heterogeneity
  • Immune cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research


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