Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases

Eyal Margalit, Srinivas R. Sadda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations

Abstract

A variety of disease processes can affect the retina and/or the optic nerve, including vascular or ischemic disease, inflammatory or infectious disease, and degenerative disease. These disease processes may selectively damage certain parts of the retina or optic nerve, and the specific areas that are damaged may have implications for the design of potential therapeutic visual prosthetic devices. Outer retinal diseases include age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and retinitis pigmentosa. Although the retinal photoreceptors may be lost, the inner retina is relatively well-preserved in these diseases and may be a target for retinal prosthetic devices. Inner retinal diseases include retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous occlusive disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Other retinal diseases such as ocular infections (retinitis, endophthalmitis) may affect all retinal layers. Because the inner retinal cells, including the retinal ganglion cells, may be destroyed in these diseases (inner retinal or whole retinal), prosthetic devices that stimulate the inner retina may not be effective. Common optic nerve diseases include glaucoma, optic neuritis, and ischemic optic neuropathy. Because the ganglion cell nerve fibers themselves are damaged, visual prosthetics for these diseases will need to target more distal portions of the visual pathway, such as the visual cortex. Clearly, a sound understanding of retinal and optic nerve disease pathophysiology is critical for designing and choosing the optimal visual prosthetic device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)963-974
Number of pages12
JournalArtificial Organs
Volume27
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2003

Keywords

  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Glaucoma
  • Inner retina
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Outer retina
  • Retinal degenerations
  • Visual prostheses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this