Retinal Projections In Quail (Coturnix Coturnix)

Robert B. Norgren, Rae Silver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The trajectory of retinal projections and the location of retinorecipient nuclei in the quail brain was examined after application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) either to the cut end of the optic nerve or following intraocular injection of HRP. Retinal projections to the hypothalamus, dorsalateral anterior thalamus (rostralateral part, magnocellular part, and lateral part), lateral anterior thalamus, lateroventral geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate intercalated nuclei (rostral and caudal parts), ventrolateral thalamus, superficial synencephalic nucleus, external nucleus, tectal gray, diffuse pretectal area, pretectal optic area, ectomammillary nucleus, and optic tectum were revealed. Retinal projections observed in quail were compared with results obtained in other avian species and considered in relation to possible anatomic pathways underlying photoperiodism and circadian rhythms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-387
Number of pages11
JournalVisual Neuroscience
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • Birds
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Photoperiodism
  • Quail
  • Retinal projections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Sensory Systems


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