The retina is a simple and an accessible model of the central nervous system that has been used to further our understanding of how the brain develops and functions. It holds similar promise for shedding light on why and how specific neuronal types degenerate, and devising stem cell-based approaches for treating neurodegenerative changes. Retinal stem cells generate all seven major retinal cell types, including Muller glia in an evolutionarily conserved temporal sequence. Here, we first describe the approaches to isolate and characterize retinal stem cells. Second, we discuss the signaling pathways implicated in their maintenance. Third, factors underlying the neuronal and glial differentiation of retinal stem cells are highlighted, and finally we discuss the recently identified stem cells properties of Muller glia in adult retina, which has an implication in retinal regeneration.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Neural Development and Stem Cells|
|Subtitle of host publication||Third Edition|
|Publisher||Springer New York|
|Number of pages||22|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2012|
ASJC Scopus subject areas