Return on Investment Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening and Downstaging in Egypt: Implications for Developing Countries

Alena N. Skrundevskiy, Omar S. Omar, Jungyoon Kim, Amr S. Soliman, Theodore A. Korolchuk, Fernando A. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis of a breast cancer screening program in Egypt by comparing net profit in treatment costs saved to program cost investment. Methods: The breast cancer downstaging program targeted women living in an Egyptian slum, where residents have low access to health care. Program costs were estimated by using data from interviews with program administrative staff. Screening and treatment costs were estimated by using Ministry of Health medical reimbursement data. Estimates for expected rates of downstaging were modeled on the basis of data from a previous study. ROI, or relative cost savings, was calculated by comparing treatment cost savings to costs for the screening program. A baseline ROI for facility-based screening was calculated, followed by ROIs for different scenarios. Results: Average per-person treatment cost for screened and unscreened patients was estimated to be $28,632 and $58,170, respectively, with a cumulative lifetime risk of 6.36%. Total screening program cost per person was $112.10. The study estimated an expected decrease in late-stage breast cancer diagnosis by 13.7% as a result of the screening program, saving $4,049 in treatment costs per individual diagnosed. The analysis resulted in a positive ROI of 133% for facility-based screening. Conclusions: Breast cancer represents an increasing burden on health care in Egypt and other developing countries. This study concludes that a community-based downstaging program resulted in a positive ROI, or overall cost-savings. The findings inform that policymakers in low-income and middle-income countries may consider implementing community-based downstaging programs for breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-27
Number of pages6
JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Egypt
  • breast cancer
  • cancer screening
  • community
  • developing countries
  • downstaging
  • return-on-investment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy


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