Revised and abbreviated forms of the genderism and transphobia scale: Tools for assessing anti-trans* prejudice

Elliot A. Tebbe, Bonnie Moradi, Engin Ege

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Many studies of anti-trans* prejudice have measured such attitudes using the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS; Hill&Willoughby, 2005). The GTS is unique in assessing negative attitudes and propensity for violence toward trans* people. The present research addressed previously observed limitations in the psychometric properties of data produced by the GTS, including inconsistencies in factor structure and subscale scoring across studies. Results across the present 2 studies (Ns = 314 and 250) yielded 2 refined versions of the GTS: the 22-item GTS-Revised (GTS-R) and a more abbreviated 13-item GTS-R-Short Form (GTS-R-SF), each of which produced stable 2-factor structures corresponding with the intended negative attitudes and propensity for violence dimensions of the GTS. The 2 versions differ in that the GTS-R-SF Genderism/Transphobia subscale focuses on more severe expressions of prejudicial attitudes, whereas the longer GTS-R Genderism/Transphobia subscale assesses subtle expressions of prejudice as well. The Gender-Bashing subscale is identical across the 2 versions. Thus, researchers and practitioners may choose the GTS-R or GTS-R-SF depending on the breadth of prejudicial attitudes they wish to assess. Reliability estimates for GTS-R and GTS-R-SF scale and subscale item responses were acceptable and stable across the 2 studies, and validity evidence was garnered in Study 2. These findings can inform use of the GTS-R and GTS-R-SF in research and practice settings, where psychometric precision and efficiency are both critical.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-592
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Discrimination
  • Gender queer
  • Gender roles
  • Transgender
  • Transsexual

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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