Ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide toxins from mushrooms

Jonathan D. Walton, Hong Luo, Heather Hallen-Adams

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


The cyclic peptide toxins of poisonous Amanita mushrooms are chemically unique among known natural products. Furthermore, they differ from other fungal cyclic peptides in being synthesized on ribosomes instead of by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Because of their novel structures and biogenic origins, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of the Amanita cyclic peptides presents both challenges and opportunities. In particular, a full understanding of the pathway should lead to the ability to direct synthesis of a large number of novel cyclic peptides based on the Amanita toxin scaffold by genetic engineering of the encoding genes. Here, we highlight some of the principal methods for working with the Amanita cyclic peptides and the known steps in their biosynthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Enzymology
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages15
StatePublished - 2012

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988


  • Actin
  • Amanita phalloides
  • Amanitin
  • Galerina marginata
  • Phallacidin
  • Phalloidin
  • Prolyl oligopeptidase
  • RNA polymerase II

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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