Risk Factors for Retinal Detachment in Acute Retinal Necrosis

J. Clay Bavinger, Casey L. Anthony, Aaron T. Lindeke-Myers, Stephanie Lynch, Lucy T. Xu, Joshua Barnett, David Levine, Purnima Patel, Rachel Shah, Nieraj Jain, Prethy Rao, Andrew Hendrick, Blaine E. Cribbs, Jiong Yan, G. Baker Hubbard, Jessica G. Shantha, Ghazala D. O'Keefe, Steven Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: Retinal detachment (RD) is associated with poor visual outcomes in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). This research was undertaken to assess the risk factors for RD in ARN. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients diagnosed with ARN at a tertiary referral center from 2010 to 2020. Methods: A chart review was performed for all clinical and surgical encounters. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses of demographic and clinical variables associated with RD were performed. Survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed to compare the time to RD in herpes simplex virus (HSV)- and varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated ARN. Main Outcome Measures: Demographic information, clinical information (including visual acuity [VA]), intraocular pressure (IOP), intraocular inflammation level, the extent of retinitis, incidence and timing of retinal detachment, date of diagnosis, and treatments performed (including intravitreal injections of antiviral medications). Results: Fifty-four eyes of 47 patients who were diagnosed with ARN were included, with equal proportions of eyes (n = 27; 50%) with VZV-ARN and HSV-ARN. Patients with VZV-ARN were, on average, older, more likely to be men, and more likely to be immunosuppressed compared with patients with HSV-ARN. The clinical characteristics, including the initial VA, initial IOP, anterior segment inflammation, clock hours, and posterior extent of retinitis, were similar between eyes with VZV- and HSV-ARN. In the univariate analysis of clinical and demographic variables associated with the development of RD, initial VA (P = 0.0083) and greater clock hours of retinitis (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with RD. These 2 variables remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression; worse VA at presentation had an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–5.44; P = 0.042), and greater clock hours of retinitis had an odds ratio of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02–1.47; P = 0.025). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated no statistical difference in RD-free survival between HSV- and VZV-ARN. Conclusions: Patients with VZV-ARN were more likely to be older, male, and immunosuppressed compared with those with HSV-ARN, although no clear difference was observed in RD by viral etiology. Poor initial VA and clock hours of retinitis were significantly associated with RD development and may be relevant for patient counseling and prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)478-483
Number of pages6
JournalOphthalmology Retina
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Acute retinal necrosis
  • Herpetic retinitis
  • Retinal detachment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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