Background Fifteen percent of US adults have chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of CKD on the development of different malignancies is unknown. Understanding the effect of CKD on the risk of development of cancer could have important implications for screening and early detection of cancer in these patients. Methods Adult CKD patients [estimated GFR (eGFR) <60ml/min/1.73m2] between January 2001 and December 2020 were identified in this single institution study. Patients were divided into four stages of CKD by eGFR. The incidence of cancer and time to development of the first cancer were identified. Multivariable models were used to compare the overall cancer incidence while considering death as a competing risk event and adjusting for relevant covariates (sex, race, diabetes, hypertension, CAD, smoking or not, BMI, and CKD stages). Separate multivariable models of the incidence of cancers were conducted in each age group. Multivariable Cox models were used to fit the overall death adjusting for relevant covariates. Patients were censored at the conclusion of the study period (December 31, 2020). Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software (version 9.4). Results Of the 13,750 patients with a diagnosis of CKD in this cohort, 2,758 (20.1%) developed a malignancy. The median time to development of cancer following a diagnosis of CKD was 8.5 years. Factors associated with the risk of developing cancer in CKD patients included increasing age, male sex and worsening chronic kidney disease, while diabetes was associated with a lower risk of malignancy. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with increased mortality in patients who developed cancer included increasing age, diabetes and lower eGFR. Conclusion CKD is an increased risk factor for the development of various malignancies. Age appropriate cancer screening should be aggressively pursued in those with progressive CKD.
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