Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors: Micro-Review

James R. Alfano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Bacterial and eukaryotic plant pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells to promote pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems are known to inject many of these effectors into plant cells. More recently, oomycete pathogens have been shown to possess a large family of effectors containing the RXLR motif, and many effectors are also being discovered in fungal pathogens. Although effector activities are largely unknown, at least a subset suppress plant immunity. A plethora of new plant pathogen genomes that will soon be available thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies will allow the identification of many more effectors. This article summarizes the key approaches used to identify plant pathogen effectors, many of which will continue to be useful for future effector discovery. Thus, it can be viewed as a 'roadmap' for effector and effector target identification. Because effectors can be used as tools to elucidate components of innate immunity, advances in our understanding of effectors and their targets should lead to improvements in agriculture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)805-813
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Plant Pathology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science


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