Recent studies on the coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia have shown that both X4 and R5 viruses are involved in the process. The disease is associated with enhanced virus replication and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in macrophages in the brain. Using the macaque model of the disease, the authors show here that X4, macrophage-tropic simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) required the enhancing effect of interleukin (IL)-4 to achieve equivalent concentrations of virus and MCP-1 that are produced in macrophages infected with R5 viruses alone. Confocal microscopy showed that macrophages in the encephalitic brains were the major producers of MCP-1. The authors surmise, therefore, that whereas R5 viruses maybe capable of causing the disease as a primary pathogen, X4 viruses may require IL-4, induced by opportunistic pathogens, for induction of the neuropathological syndrome.
- SHIV encephalitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience