The peripheral arterial chemoreflex, arising primarily from the carotid body in most species, plays an important role in the control of breathing and in autonomic control of cardiovascular function. The peripheral chemoreflex is enhanced in heart failure patients and animal models of heart failure and contributes to the sympathetic hyperactivity and breathing instability that exacerbates the progression of the disease. Studies in animal models have shown that carotid body chemoreceptor activity is enhanced under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in heart failure due to disruption of local mediators that control carotid body function. This brief review highlights evidence that the alterations in the gasotransmitters, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide in the carotid body contribute to the exaggerated carotid body function observed in heart failure.
- Heart failure
- Heme oxygenase-2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine