Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been an important component of therapy for myeloma patients eligible for high-dose chemotherapy. Recent studies comparing early transplant to low-dose chemotherapy support the continued use of ASCT as consolidation following induction therapy, even in the era of immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, and other novel agents. Despite the marked improvements in outcomes with this approach, most patients will eventually experience disease progression. Thus, inclusion of post-ASCT consolidation/maintenance strategies is used to improve long-term disease control. Multiple randomized studies support the use of lenalidomide maintenance therapy following ASCT. The next generation of clinical trials will incorporate novel agents such as monoclonal antibodies, proteasome inhibitors, and other novel pathway modulatory agents into post-ASCT treatment strategies with the goal of achieving even deeper responses and longer durations of disease control.
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