Role of the Gut Bacteria-Derived Metabolite Phenylacetylglutamine in Health and Diseases

Naveen Kumar Krishnamoorthy, Manjunath Kalyan, Tousif Ahmed Hediyal, Nikhilesh Anand, Pavan Heggadadevanakote Kendaganna, Gurudutt Pendyala, Sowmya V. Yelamanchili, Jian Yang, Saravana Babu Chidambaram, Meena Kishore Sakharkar, Arehally M. Mahalakshmi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Over the past few decades, it has been well established that gut microbiota-derived metabolites can disrupt gut function, thus resulting in an array of diseases. Notably, phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln), a bacterial derived metabolite, has recently gained attention due to its role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This meta-organismal metabolite PAGln is a byproduct of amino acid acetylation of its precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA) from a range of dietary sources like egg, meat, dairy products, etc. The microbiota-dependent metabolism of phenylalanine produces PAA, which is a crucial intermediate that is catalyzed by diverse microbial catalytic pathways. PAA conjugates with glutamine and glycine in the liver and kidney to predominantly form phenylacetylglutamine in humans and phenylacetylglycine in rodents. PAGln is associated with thrombosis as it enhances platelet activation mediated through the GPCRs receptors α2A, α2B, and β2 ADRs, thereby aggravating the pathological conditions. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated levels of PAGln are associated with pathology of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and neurological diseases. This Review further consolidates the microbial/biochemical synthesis of PAGln and discusses its role in the above pathophysiologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalACS Omega
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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