The encephalopathy caused by HIV, known clinically as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and pathologically as HIV encephalitis (HIVE), results from intense infiltration of mononuclear cells, productive replication of the virus in monocyte-derived macrophages/microglia, abortive replication in astrocytes and activation of macrophages/microglia and astrocytes leading to neuronal degeneration in the brains of infected persons. Recent findings have suggested that development of HAD is based more on the activation process than on direct evidence of virus replication in the brain. Since HAD is based on the encephalitic process, major studies have been directed to the mechanisms regulating the inflammatory process. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, MCP-1, is a chemokine that is implicated in this process and also in the development of activation in the brain. In this review, we have attempted to identify mechanisms that induce expression of MCP-1 in the brain and the role that it plays in recruitment of mononuclear cells from blood to brain and in the activation processes of inflammatory and neural cells that lead to development of degenerative changes in the neuronal population.
- Blood brain barrier
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)