Roles of the tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine in oxidative stress

Brett R. Ipson, Alfred L. Fisher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

The damage to cellular components by reactive oxygen species, termed oxidative stress, both increases with age and likely contributes to age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cataract formation. In the setting of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the benzyl ring of the amino acid phenylalanine, which then produces the abnormal tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine or ortho-tyrosine. While elevations in m-tyrosine and o-tyrosine concentrations have been used as a biological marker of oxidative stress, there is emerging evidence from bacterial, plant, and mammalian studies demonstrating that these isomers, particularly m-tyrosine, directly produce adverse effects to cells and tissues. These new findings suggest that the abnormal tyrosine isomers could in fact represent mediators of the effects of oxidative stress. Consequently the accumulation of m- and o-tyrosine may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to disease pathogenesis, and as result, effective defenses against oxidative stress can encompass not only the elimination of reactive oxygen species but also the metabolism and ultimately the removal of the abnormal tyrosine isomers from the cellular amino acid pool. Future research in this area is needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms by which the tyrosine isomers damage cells and disrupt the function of tissues and organs and to identify the metabolic pathways involved in removing the accumulated isomers after exposure to oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-107
Number of pages15
JournalAgeing Research Reviews
Volume27
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Hydroxyl radical
  • Meta-Tyrosine
  • Ortho-Tyrosine
  • Oxidative stress
  • Tyrosine isomers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Aging
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurology

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