Salmonella bacteremia among children in central and Northwest Nigeria, 2008-2015

Stephen K. Obaro, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, Eyinade K. Olateju, Dominic Umoru, Lovett Lawson, Grace Olanipekun, Sadeeq Ibrahim, Huda Munir, Gabriel Ihesiolor, Augustine Maduekwe, Chinatu Ohiaeri, Anthony Adetola, Denis Shetima, Binta W. Jibir, Hafsat Nakaura, Nicholas Kocmich, Therasa Ajose, David Idiong, Kabir Masokano, Adeyemi IfabiyiNnenna Ihebuzor, Baojiang Chen, Jane Meza, Adebayo Akindele, Amy Rezac-Elgohary, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Salman Suwaid, Mahmoud Gambo, Roxanne Alter, Herbert D. Davies, Paul D. Fey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Background. Etiologic agents of childhood bacteremia remain poorly defined in Nigeria. The absence of such data promotes indiscriminate use of antibiotics and delays implementation of appropriate preventive strategies. Methods. We established diagnostic laboratories for bacteremia surveillance at regional sites in central and northwest Nigeria. Acutely ill children aged <5 years with clinically suspected bacteremia were evaluated at rural and urban clinical facilities in the Federal Capital Territory, central region and in Kano, northwest Nigeria. Blood was cultured using the automated Bactec incubator system. Results. Between September 2008 and April 2015, we screened 10 133 children. Clinically significant bacteremia was detected in 609 of 4051 (15%) in the northwest and 457 of 6082 (7.5%) in the central region. Across both regions, Salmonella species account for 24%-59.8% of bacteremias and are the commonest cause of childhood bacteremia, with a predominance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole was 38.11%, with regional differences in susceptibility to different antibiotics but high prevalence of resistance to readily available oral antibiotics. Conclusions. Salmonella Typhi is the leading cause of childhood bacteremia in central Nigeria. Expanded surveillance is planned to define the dynamics of transmission. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains calls for improvement in environmental sanitation in the long term and vaccination in the short term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S325-S331
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015


  • Nigeria
  • Salmonellae
  • antibiotic resistance
  • bacteremia
  • children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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