We report, a male preterm baby of 31 weeks gestation weighing 1.249 kg. admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at AIIMS New Delhi. He had abdominal distension, metabolic acidosis, apnoic attacks and loose stools that was positive for occult blood on the basis of above clinical features the baby was diagnosed to have Necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell stage I). Three samples of stool (day 9, 19, 30) and one sample of blood (day 19) were processed. Three serotype of Salmonella sp. (S. gallinarum day 9, S. typhi day 19 and S senftenberg day 30) were isolated at different occasions from stool samples along with E. coll and coagulase negative Staphylococci by using conventional biochemical and rapid identifications kits (BioMérieux Vitek. Inc). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of specific flagellin gene sequence of S.typhi was applied on stools and blood samples of baby. Stool was negative by one round of PCR while blood was positive by nested PCR. However mother’s blood was found to be negative by PCR for 5. typhi. The baby responded to supportive treatment, antibiotic therapy with cefotaxime and amikacin and was discharged after a period of two months. Polymicrobial and infectious etiology of NEC and the use of rapid molecular techniques such as PCR for identification of etiological agents is highlighted which max provide newer insights into the pathogenesis of Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
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