Selection Procedures for the Largest Lyapunov Exponent in Gait Biomechanics

Peter C. Raffalt, Jenny A. Kent, Shane R. Wurdeman, Nicholas Stergiou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Wolf et al. (LyE_W) and Rosenstein et al. largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE_R) algorithms to differentiate data sets with distinctly different temporal structures. The three-dimensional displacement of the sacrum was recorded from healthy subjects during walking and running at two speeds; one low speed close to the preferred walking speed and one high speed close to the preferred running speed. LyE_R and LyE_W were calculated using four different time series normalization procedures. The performance of the algorithms were evaluated based on their ability to return relative low values for slow walking and fast running and relative high values for fast walking and slow running. Neither of the two algorithms outperformed the other; however, the effectiveness of the two algorithms was highly dependent on the applied time series normalization procedure. Future studies using the LyE_R should normalize the time series to a fixed number of strides and a fixed number of data points per stride or data points per time series while the LyE_W should be applied to time series normalized to a fixed number of data points or a fixed number of strides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)913-923
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of biomedical engineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 15 2019


  • Dynamics
  • Locomotion
  • Nonlinear analysis
  • Variability
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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