Sensitive and simplified analysis of natural and synthetic steroids in water and solids using on-line solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure photoionization

Daniel D. Snow, Teyona Damon-Powell, Sathaporn Onanong, David A. Cassada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations

Abstract

Analytical methods for the determination of several natural and synthetic steroids in water and solid samples were developed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in positive mode was used as the source which appeared to reduce background and interferences as compared to electrospray ionization. Toluene was identified as the most appropriate dopant and its concentration optimized to enhance ionization efficiency. Method detection limits were in the low-nanogram-per- liter range for water samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and near 0.2 ng/g using microwave-assisted solvent extraction for solid samples. This on-line method, using APPI as a source and toluene as a dopant, is beneficial as it saves time due to on-line extraction and reduces interference and matrix effects using gas-phase photoionization. Groundwater, wastewater, runoff, and soil samples were collected and analyzed using the method indicating that traces of several androgens, estrogens, and other steroid-like compounds do occur in samples impacted by animal waste. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1759-1771
Number of pages13
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume405
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2013

Keywords

  • Atmospheric pressure photoionization
  • Environmental
  • Mass spectrometry
  • On-line solid-phase extraction
  • Steroid hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Sensitive and simplified analysis of natural and synthetic steroids in water and solids using on-line solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure photoionization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this