The female mammalian brain exhibits sex hormone-driven plasticity during the reproductive period. Recent evidence implicates chromatin dynamics in gene regulation underlying this plasticity. However, whether ovarian hormones impact higher-order chromatin organization in post-mitotic neurons in vivo is unknown. Here, we mapped the 3D genome of ventral hippocampal neurons across the oestrous cycle and by sex in mice. In females, we find cycle-driven dynamism in 3D chromatin organization, including in oestrogen response elements-enriched X chromosome compartments, autosomal CTCF loops, and enhancer-promoter interactions. With rising oestrogen levels, the female 3D genome becomes more similar to the male 3D genome. Cyclical enhancer-promoter interactions are partially associated with gene expression and enriched for brain disorder-relevant genes and pathways. Our study reveals unique 3D genome dynamics in the female brain relevant to female-specific gene regulation, neuroplasticity, and disease risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)