SHIV-1157i and passaged progeny viruses encoding R5 HIV-1 clade C env cause AIDS in rhesus monkeys

Michael Humbert, Robert A. Rasmussen, Ruijiang Song, Helena Ong, Prachi Sharma, Agnès L. Chenine, Victor G. Kramer, Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa, Weidong Xu, James G. Else, Francis J. Novembre, Elizabeth Strobert, Shawn P. O'Neil, Ruth M. Ruprecht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Background: Infection of nonhuman primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains is widely used to study lentiviral pathogenesis, antiviral immunity and the efficacy of AIDS vaccine candidates. SHIV challenges allow assessment of anti-HIV-1 envelope responses in primates. As such, SHIVs should mimic natural HIV-1 infection in humans and, to address the pandemic, encode HIV-1 Env components representing major viral subtypes worldwide. Results: We have developed a panel of clade C R5-tropic SHIVs based upon env of a Zambian pediatric isolate of HIV-1 clade C, the world's most prevalent HIV-1 subtype. The parental infectious proviral clone, SHIV-1157i, was rapidly passaged through five rhesus monkeys. After AIDS developed in the first animal at week 123 post-inoculation, infected blood was infused into a sixth monkey. Virus reisolated at this late stage was still exclusively R5 tropic and mucosally transmissible. Here we describe the long-term follow-up of this initial cohort of six monkeys. Two have remained non-progressors, whereas the other four gradually progressed to AIDS within 123-270 weeks post-exposure. Two progressors succumbed to opportunistic infections, including a case of SV40 encephalitis. Conclusion: These data document the disease progression induced by the first mucosally transmissible, pathogenic R5 non-clade B SHIV and suggest that SHIV-1157i-derived viruses, including the late-stage, highly replication-competent SHIV-1157ipd3N4 previously described (Song et al., 2006), display biological characteristics that mirror those of HIV-1 clade C and support their expanded use for AIDS vaccine studies in nonhuman primates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number94
StatePublished - Oct 17 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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