Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sustained ER stress leads to activation of the growth arrest and leucine zipper transcription factor, DNA damage inducible gene 153 (gadd153; also called CHOP). Activated gadd153 can generate oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, disturb iron homeostasis and induce inflammation as well as cell death, which are all pathological hallmarks of AD. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that cholesterol dyshomeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. We have previously shown that the cholesterol oxidized metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) triggers AD-like pathology in organotypic slices. However, the extent to which gadd153 mediates 27-OHC effects has not been determined. We silenced gadd153 gene with siRNA and determined the effects of 27-OHC on AD hallmarks in organotypic slices from adult rabbit hippocampus. siRNA to gadd153 reduced 27-OHC-induced Aβ production by mechanisms involving reduction in levels of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-secretase (BACE1), the enzyme that initiates cleavage of APP to yield Aβ peptides. Additionally, 27-OHC-induced tau phosphorylation, ROS generation, TNF-α activation, and iron and apoptosis-regulatory protein levels alteration were also markedly reduced by siRNA to gadd153. These data suggest that ER stress-mediated gadd153 activation plays a central role in the triggering of AD pathological hallmarks that result from incubation of hippocampal slices with 27-OHC. Our results add important insights into cellular mechanisms that underlie the potential contribution of cholesterol metabolism in AD pathology, and suggest that preventing gadd153 activation protects against AD related to cholesterol oxidized products.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)