Size dependence of nanoparticle magnetization

R. Skomski, B. Balamurugan, P. Manchanda, M. Chipara, D. J. Sellmyer

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5 Scopus citations


The magnetization of noninteracting metallic nanoparticles is investigated by comparing the particle-size and temperature dependences of the magnetization for several mechanisms. The nanoparticle magnetization deviates from that of the underlying bulk materials due to zero-temperature and thermal effects, and on a mean-field level, the corresponding surface-core interaction is described by a Landau-Ginzburg approach. A major factor is the reduced atomic coordination at the surface, which has often, but not always, opposite effects on the zero-temperature magnetization and Curie temperatures. The coordination effect is particularly pronounced for very weak itinerant ferromagnets and for strongly exchange-enhanced Pauli paramagnets. With regard to external magnetic fields, the nanoparticle magnetization involves several 'superparamagnetic' phenomena, namely, Néel relaxation, Brownian relaxation, and Langevin macrospin paramagnetism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7544600
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2017


  • Magnetization
  • micromagnetics
  • nanoparticles
  • quantum confinement
  • surface spin polarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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