Sleeve gastrectomy and anti-reflux procedures

Christopher Crawford, Kyle Gibbens, Daniel Lomelin, Crystal Krause, Anton Simorov, Dmitry Oleynikov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: Obesity is an epidemic in the USA that continues to grow, becoming a leading cause of premature avoidable death. Bariatric surgery has become an effective solution for obesity and its comorbidities, and one of the most commonly utilized procedures, the sleeve gastrectomy, can lead to an increase in gastroesophageal reflux following the operation. While these data are controversial, sometimes operative intervention can be necessary to provide durable relief for this problem. Methods: We performed an extensive literature review examining the different methods of anti-reflux procedures that are available both before and after a sleeve gastrectomy. Results: We reviewed several different types of anti-reflux procedures, including those that supplement the lower esophageal sphincter anatomy, such as magnetic sphincter augmentation and radiofrequency ablation procedures. Re-operation was also discussed as a possible treatment of reflux in sleeve gastrectomy, especially if the original sleeve becomes dilated or if a conversion to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or biliopancreatic diversion is deemed necessary. Sleeve gastrectomy with concomitant anti-reflux procedure was also reviewed, including the anti-reflux gastroplasty, hiatal hernia repair, and limited fundoplication. Conclusion: A number of techniques can be used to mitigate the severity of reflux, either by maintaining the normal anatomic structures that limit reflux or by supplementing these structures with a plication or gastroplasty. Individuals with existing severe reflux should not be considered for a sleeve gastrectomy. New techniques that incorporate plication at the time of the index sleeve gastrectomy show some improvement, but these are in small series that will need to be further evaluated. The only proven method of treating intractable reflux after sleeve gastrectomy is conversion to a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1012-1021
Number of pages10
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Anti-reflux procedures
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Obesity
  • Sleeve gastrectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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